BLACK explores the formation, feeding and feedback of massive black holes in galaxies, across cosmic time.

Massive black holes, weighing from a few hundred thousands to billions of solar masses, inhabit the centers of today’s galaxies, including our own Milky Way. Most of today’s massive black holes weigh about a thousandth of the host stellar mass.

Massive black holes also powered quasars known to exist just a few hundred million years after the Big Bang, when the first galaxies were assembling.

BLACK aims to connect the cosmic context to the galactic nuclear region where massive black holes reside, and to study their formation, feeding, and feedback on their hosts.


How did the first galaxies and black holes grow to become what we see today? From Volonteri, 2012, Science, 337, 554.